YOURLS 縮址服務

BUBU 使用 BookStack 服務在 po 連接文章給社群朋友們有點過長,想說使用短址服務來給社群朋友們使用,目前有比較常使用到 ptt 縮址服務產出來的連接使用,但是這樣子比較不太方便,想要了解目前給的連接服務被點來看機率有多高,在尋找的時候剛好有一個套件 YOURLS 服務有開源功能還滿其全的可以剛好又可以自行架設,記錄一下如何安裝及基本使用

運行環境


本工作室環境都是在 「Proxmox VE 」 虛擬系統上架設,都是以 「 LXC 」模式為主,除非有特殊狀況會告知使用 「 VM 」 模式

  • 系統環境: CentOS 7
  • Web 服務: Nginx 1.17
  • PHP 服務: PHP 7.3
  • 資料庫服務: MariaDB 10.4

安裝 web 服務


  • 安裝 Nginx 先決條件
yum install yum-utils -y
  • 設定 yum 存儲庫,在此目錄下新增一個 vim /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo 屬於 官方提供載點
[nginx-stable]
name=nginx stable repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgkey=https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key
module_hotfixes=true

[nginx-mainline]
name=nginx mainline repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key
module_hotfixes=true
  • 會建議使用 stable 穩定版本,如果想使用比較最新的版本請使用 nginx-mailine 會以當時官方釋出的版本為主,目前 BUBU 是使用官方比較新版為主
yum-config-manager --enable nginx-mainline
  • 安裝 nginx 服務
yum install nginx -y
  • 啟動服務
systemctl start nginx ; systemctl enable nginx

資料庫服務


  • 首先新增加 MariaDB.repo 官方載點
新增加MariaDB安裝檔
vim /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo

再填入內容為以下

# MariaDB 10.4 CentOS repository list - created 2019-08-21 13:29 UTC
# http://downloads.mariadb.org/mariadb/repositories/
[mariadb]
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.4/centos7-amd64
gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
gpgcheck=1

增加完畢後在下命令安裝

yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client -y
  • 資料庫安裝及設定
systemctl enable mariadb ; systemctl start mariadb   # 啟動資料庫服
mysql_secure_installation   # 設定資料庫的root密碼

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n]
Enabled successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n]
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

mysql -u root -p   # 登入資料庫裡設定資表及權限

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS yourls DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci; #在資料庫裡新增yourls表單
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON yourls.* TO 'yourls_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password' WITH GRANT OPTION; #密碼請自己輸入好記錄的密碼
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
quit

PHP 服務


  • 先安裝額外的套件及載點
yum install -y epel-release yum-utils
  • 因內鍵預設版本是 PHP 5.4 因此本版官方已不在維護,建議直接安裝當時官方所提供主要版本,現在安裝版本是 PHP 7.3
rpm -Uvh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-7.rpm
yum-config-manager --disable remi-php54
yum-config-manager --enable remi-php73
  • 安裝 PHP 套件
yum install -y php php-mysqlnd php-pdo php-xml php-pear php-devel php-mbstring re2c gcc-c++ gcc \
php-fpm php-mysql php-gd php-cli php-json php-opcache php-curl php-ldap php-odbc php-xmlrpc php-soap \
curl curl-devel php-intl  php-zip
  • 安裝好 PHP 要去修改 vim /etc/php.ini 設定檔
修改時區
[Date]
修改前
;date.timezone = 
修改後
date.timezone = Asia/Taipei
  • 設定「php-fpm」 vim /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
由誰使用此服務
; RPM: apache user chosen to provide access to the same directories as httpd
;user = apache
user = nginx
; RPM: Keep a group allowed to write in log dir.
;group = apache
group =nginx
  • 重啟及開機自動啟動 php-fpm 服務
systemctl restart php-fpm ; systemctl enable php-fpm

YOURLS 服務


  • 到 web 服務目錄下將 YOURLS 檔案下載
cd /var/www/html/
用 git 方式下載
git clone https://github.com/YOURLS/YOURLS
修改名稱
mv YOURLS/ yourls/
  • yourls 設定檔
cd /var/www/html/yourls/user/
修改設定檔
cp config-sample.php config.php

vim config.php
  • 修改內容如下

資料庫連接

/*
 ** MySQL settings - You can get this info from your web host
 */

/** MySQL database username */
define( 'YOURLS_DB_USER', 'your db user name' );

/** MySQL database password */
define( 'YOURLS_DB_PASS', 'your db password' );

/** The name of the database for YOURLS */
define( 'YOURLS_DB_NAME', 'yourls' );

/** MySQL hostname.
 ** If using a non standard port, specify it like 'hostname:port', eg. 'localhost:9999' or '127.0.0.1:666' */
define( 'YOURLS_DB_HOST', 'localhost' );

/** MySQL tables prefix */
define( 'YOURLS_DB_PREFIX', 'yourls_' );


/** YOURLS installation URL -- all lowercase, no trailing slash at the end.
 ** If you define it to "http://sho.rt", don't use "http://www.sho.rt" in your browser (and vice-versa) */
define( 'YOURLS_SITE', 'http://your-own-domain-here.com' );

時區
/** Server timezone GMT offset */
define( 'YOURLS_HOURS_OFFSET', '+8' );


/** Allow multiple short URLs for a same long URL
 ** Set to true to have only one pair of shortURL/longURL (default YOURLS behavior)
 ** Set to false to allow multiple short URLs pointing to the same long URL (bit.ly behavior) */
define( 'YOURLS_UNIQUE_URLS', true );


/** Private means the Admin area will be protected with login/pass as defined below.
 ** Set to false for public usage (eg on a restricted intranet or for test setups)
 ** Read http://yourls.org/privatepublic for more details if you're unsure */
define( 'YOURLS_PRIVATE', true );


/** A random secret hash used to encrypt cookies. You don't have to remember it, make it long and complicated. Hint: copy from http://yourls.org/cookie **/
define( 'YOURLS_COOKIEKEY', 'modify this text with something random' );

管理者的帳號及密碼
/** Username(s) and password(s) allowed to access the site. Passwords either in plain text or as encrypted hashes
 ** YOURLS will auto encrypt plain text passwords in this file
 ** Read http://yourls.org/userpassword for more information */
$yourls_user_passwords = array(
	'username' => 'password',  <<< username 修改成管理者帳號、password 修改成管理者密碼
	// 'username2' => 'password2',
	// You can have one or more 'login'=>'password' lines
	);
  • 權限設定
chown -R nginx:nginx /var/www/html/yourls/

Nginx 設定檔


  • 服務設定檔 vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/xxx.conf
server {
# 這個主機的 Port
    listen 80;
# 這個主機的名稱
    server_name 網域網名;
    rewrite ^(.*)$ https://${server_name}$1 permanent;
}
#
server {
# 使用 https 和 http/2 協定
    listen 443 ssl http2;
# 上述的 IPv6 方式
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    server_name 網域網名;
    root /var/www/html/yourls;
#
# certs sent to the client in SERVER HELLO are concatenated in ssl_certificate
#
# SSL 憑證證書路徑
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/fullchain.pem;
# 私鑰路徑
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/privkey.pem;
# 緩存有效期
    ssl_session_timeout 1d;
# 緩存憑證類型和大小
    ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
#
# intermediate configuration. tweak to your needs.
#
# 使用的加密協定
    ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
# 加密演算法,越前面的優先級越高
    ssl_ciphers 'TLS13-AES-256-GCM-SHA384:TLS13-CHACHA20-POLY1305-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-GCM-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-8-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-SHA256:EECDH+CHACHA20:EECDH+CHACHA20-draft:EECDH+ECDSA+AES128:EECDH+aRSA+AES128:RSA+AES128:EECDH+ECDSA+AES256:EECDH+aRSA+AES256:RSA+AES256:EECDH+ECDSA+3DES:EECDH+aRSA+3DES:RSA+3DES:!MD5';
# 交握過程使用 Server 的首選加演算法,這裡使用 Client 為首選
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
# HSTS (ngx_http_headers_module is required) (15768000 seconds = 6 months)
#
# 增加 http header
    add_header Strict-Transport-Security max-age=63072000;
#
    access_log /var/log/nginx/ys_access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/ys_error.log;
#
    client_max_body_size 1G;
    fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;
#
# html 檔
    location / {
# 使用「瀏覽器」瀏覽根目錄時,未指定檔名時預設使用的檔案
        index index.php index.html index.htm;
        autoindex on;
        try_files $uri $uri/ /yourls-loader.php;
    }
    location = /50x.html {
        root /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }
# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
#
# php 檔
    location ~ \.php$ {
        fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        try_files $uri =404;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_buffers 16 16k;
        fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
    }
#
    location ~* \.(?:ogg|ogv|svg|svgz|eot|otf|woff|mp4|ttf|css|rss|atom|js|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|ppt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf)$ {
        expires 30d;
        log_not_found off;
    }
# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
# concurs with nginx's one
#
    location ~ /\.ht {
        deny all;
    }
# 發生 404 指定導向哪個網頁
#error_page  404              /404.html;
# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
#
    error_page 500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
# proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
#
# location ~ \.php$ {
#    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
#}
#
}
  • 反代理設定檔
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name 網域名稱;
    rewrite ^(.*)$ https://${server_name}$1 permanent;
}
#
server {
# 使用 https 和 http/2 協定
    listen 443 ssl http2;
# 上述的 IPv6 方式
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    server_name 網域名稱;
#
# certs sent to the client in SERVER HELLO are concatenated in ssl_certificate
#
# SSL 憑證證書路徑
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/fullchain.pem;
# 私鑰路徑
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/privkey.pem;
# 緩存有效期
    ssl_session_timeout 1d;
# 緩存憑證類型和大小
    ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
#
# intermediate configuration. tweak to your needs.
#
# 使用的加密協定
    ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
# 加密演算法,越前面的優先級越高
    ssl_ciphers 'TLS13-AES-256-GCM-SHA384:TLS13-CHACHA20-POLY1305-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-GCM-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-8-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-SHA256:EECDH+CHACHA20:EECDH+CHACHA20-draft:EECDH+ECDSA+AES128:EECDH+aRSA+AES128:RSA+AES128:EECDH+ECDSA+AES256:EECDH+aRSA+AES256:RSA+AES256:EECDH+ECDSA+3DES:EECDH+aRSA+3DES:RSA+3DES:!MD5';
# 交握過程使用 Server 的首選加演算法,這裡使用 Client 為首選
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
    access_log /var/log/nginx/ys_access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/ys_error.log;
#
    location / {
        proxy_pass https://服務主機;
        proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Real_IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
        proxy_redirect off;
        proxy_pass_header Authorization;
    }
#
    location ~* \.(?:ogg|ogv|svg|svgz|eot|otf|woff|mp4|ttf|css|rss|atom|js|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|ppt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf)$ {
        proxy_pass https://服務主機;
    }
#
    location /nginx-status {
        stub_status on;
        access_log off;
# 允許看到的 IP
        allow 127.0.0.1;
        deny all;
    }
}

YOURLS 登入方式


  • 開啟瀏灠器 http://主機名稱/admin,按下安裝 YOURLS

ys-01.png

  • 這是服務安裝完成並且已建立好資料庫的資訊,按下 YOURLS 管理頁面

ys-02.png

  • 登入成功的畫面

ys-03.png

  • 由於 YOURLS 沒有 index.php 檔,需要手動增加,不然會出現404錯誤
<php
header("HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently");
header("Location: http://yourdomain.com/admin");
>
  • 或者在 Nginx 設定檔上直接指向到 admin 目錄下

YOURLS 中文化


  • 因預設是中文,BUBU 我有 GOOGLE 一下有到有好心人放在 GITHUP 上翻成繁體中文,登出再登入就中文化了,下載方式如下
cd ~
下載
wget https://github.com/dr490n/YOURLS.pot_Chinese/archive/master.zip
解壓縮
unzip master.zip
將語言檔移動到 YOURLS 語言目錄下
cd YOURLS.pot_Chinese-master/
mv zh_Hant.mo /var/www/html/yourls/user/languages
mv zh_Hant.po /var/www/html/yourls/user/languages
  • 修改 yourls 設定檔
vim cd /var/www/html/yourls/user/config.php

修改前
/** YOURLS language
 ** Change this setting to use a translation file for your language, instead of the default English.
 ** That translation file (a .mo file) must be installed in the user/language directory.
 ** See http://yourls.org/translations for more information */
define( 'YOURLS_LANG', ' ' ); 
修改後
/** YOURLS language
 ** Change this setting to use a translation file for your language, instead of the default English.
 ** That translation file (a .mo file) must be installed in the user/language directory.
 ** See http://yourls.org/translations for more information */
define( 'YOURLS_LANG', 'zh_Hant' );

YOURLS 外掛使用


  • Random Keywords 隨機產生 short URL link
到yourls 目錄
cd /var/www/html/yourls/user/plugins
下載
git clone https://github.com/YOURLS/random-keywords
  • 登入到 YOURLS 之後選擇管理外掛,選擇  Ramdom Keywords 啟用此服務,之後產生的 short URL 都會隨機產生

yourls-01.png




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